Consultancy on the Faecal Sludge Management Market survey and analysis



1 General Background and Understanding the Concept

GOAL implements project activities under 5 key programme areas namely: (i) Health (community health, HIV&AIDS, WASH, health systems strengthening), (ii) Child Empowerment and Protection (Education, Protection and EVCY social economic support, institutional and policy strengthening), (iii) Livelihoods (Food access and availability, income and institutional strengthening) and (iv) Emergency response and risk reduction while mainstreaming gender, HIV, environment and child protection in its interventions.

The population of Kenya is growing steadily (approximately 4.2% per annum) and on top of this rapid growth is high rates of urbanization. Nairobi population is estimated at 3.8 million people by the end of 2015 of which 60% live in the informal settlements. In Nairobi, 10% of the population is served by sewers while 20% have septic tanks and the remainder use latrines. In informal settlements about 24% of people are estimated to have a latrine while an estimated 68% use public toilets (mostly over-crowded low-quality latrines) and an estimated 6% resort to open defecation or defecation in plastic bags (“flying toilets”).

GOAL Kenya (GK) is currently implementing a WASH project funded by Irish Aid in the informal settlements of Korogocho and Mukuru and intends to carry out Faecal sludge Management Market survey and analysis on the great majority of on-site sanitation facilities on the complete range of FSM services (emptying, transportation, treatment and disposal) available in the informal settlements. Residents in these areas often resort to manual emptying services for a number of reasons, including cost, the unsuitability of their pits for mechanical emptying, or inadequate road access and weak enforcement of laws. The concept is to build the knowledge base in this area and, in particular, to narrow the information gap on management, business and operating models for FSM services within the whole chain but particularly the extraction and transportation market segments. It includes primary data on the market size, business models and profitability services provision obtained through conducting in-depth surveys of service providers, individual households, government agencies, treatment/disposal site operators, and other commercial lending institutions.
GK would want to utilize a systemic approach to FSM that will identify affordable and market-lead options and sustainable solutions which will address the constraints that face poor and disadvantaged people in improving their access to services. Removing sludge from the household is a private interest, but the FSM service chain is a public interest, requiring regulation and enforcement by the government authorities responsible for the public good. As such, the market systems approach analyses functions of private market actors, individuals, government organisations and social and cultural norms in order to understand how a system operates.

2 Objectives of the consultancy

The purpose of this survey is to provide detailed data of sanitation emptying businesses and challenges and opportunities to sector stakeholders engaged in this sector, for the purpose of informing more in-depth empirical research and investments by governments, donors and other development partners. The main objective of the study is to;
a. Carry out a situation analysis of the existing business models and assess gaps in sludge extraction, transportation and treatment in Nairobi informal settlements.
b. Carry out cost-benefit analysis of promising FSM value chains and recommend on the suitable options with detailed implementation plan and budget of the option.
c. Formulate policy recommendations to support sustainable businesses in faecal sludge management.

3 Scope of Work

The consultant will undertake the following tasks:
a. Develop and submit a technical and financial proposal with details on how the consultant will carry out this task; a work plan and budget to carry out the assignment to be agreed upon with GOAL.
b. Upon agreement, arrange and conduct desk review, key informant interviews (KIIs) with individuals (Households/ tenants, Landlords, latrine owners) selected in consultation with the project team, and write up a transcript of the discussion. The methodology includes interviews with governments, service providers, support agencies, and urban planning agencies.
c. During and after the KIIs, collect all relevant documents and other secondary data referred to by interviewees, such as policy documents, financing frameworks, business plans etc.
d. Develop a Service Delivery Assessment Report.
e. Develop a Service Delivery Action Framework, setting out the key actions to be taken in the enabling environment (legislation, financing mechanisms, capacity-building etc.).
f. Specifically, prepare a report on viable options for the management of small-scale emptying services, decentralized faecal sludge treatment facilities, and faecal sludge transfer stations, considering, amongst other models a franchise approach where larger operators would manage a group of treatment plants and transfer stations and their associated pit emptying micro-enterprises.
g. Analysis of other successful faecal sludge management technological options for the urban slums elsewhere that are sustainable based on market systems
h. Develop and cost outline plans for FSM entrepreneur development, training, and marketing.
i. Present the work and participate in a stakeholder workshop to be organized by the project team.
The assignment will be undertaken using a mix of primary and secondary data collection approaches. Detailed interviews with relevant stakeholders will form the basis, but will be complemented by existing documentation produced by the government, utilities, other sector institutions, development agencies, academia etc.

4 Deliverables

a. A short inception report including a detailed work plan, list of key informants to be interviewed, data collection tools and outline interview questions – one week after signing contract.
b. Draft report on market systems analysis.
c. Final report, taking into account comments on the draft report and including costed outline plans for FSM entrepreneur development, training, and marketing – 2 weeks after receiving comments on draft report.
The research should include a market system analysis on the following, but not limited to this;
 Map the existing system, its structure, operation and dynamics.
 Assess the performance of market players.
 Assess the root causes (system level constraints) that the programme can feasibly address.
 Decide on the key priority root causes.
 Establish the incentives (will) and capacities (skill) of market players associated with the root causes.
 Generate information (intelligence and insights) which can be used to influence market players during intervention.
 Provide information that can be used for measurement purposes.
N/B: The format and size of the reports shall be discussed and agreed upon by GOAL, and the consultant.

5 Expected profile of the consultant

a. Relevant Master’s degree in business development, civil or sanitation engineering, economics, public policy, social sciences or other relevant field of study.
b. In-depth knowledge and understanding of urban development, water and sanitation or public policy in developing countries.
c. Five years’ experience in conducting such market surveys.
d. Knowledge of the water and sanitation institutional setting in Kenya, and especially in urban setting.
e. Exceptional report writing and presentation skills.

6 GOAL’s Role

a. Shall provide a copy of all relevant programme information and avail programme team to brief and discuss the programme.
b. Support the consultant by co-ordinating those people who will be interviewed.
c. Provide payment for services as per the contract.
d. GOAL’s MEAL and WASH teams will work closely the consultant.
e. GOAL MEAL team will support with data collection if required.
f. GOAL MEL team will support with the review of methodology and data collection tools.

7 Selection Criteria

The consultant is expected to submit a detailed response including the following areas:

a. Technical proposal
 Methodology and approach to be used in undertaking the assignment
 Work plan with timelines
 Evidence of relevant hands on experience related to the assignment in the recent past
 Contacts of organizations previously worked for.
 Curriculum vitae of key personnel

b. Financial proposal

 Consultant’s professional fee charges for the whole exercise in Kenya shillings
 Other relevant and allowable costs e.g. travel

8 Timeframe for Consultancy

3 months to be executed from September 2016 to November 2016

9 Submission of proposals

The expression of interest document should be emailed to or delivered to GOAL Kenya office P.O BOX 66242-00800 Nairobi. Kilimani- Nyangumi Rd, off Lenana Rd. Please quote “Faecal Sludge Management Market Survey and analysis” in the subject line of the email or on the application envelope

10 Evaluation and award of consultancy

GOAL will evaluate the proposals and award the assignment based on technical and financial feasibility. GOAL reserves the right to accept or reject any proposal received without giving reasons and is not bound to accept the lowest or the highest bidder.

Making Markets work for the poor (M4P) – a new approach for GOAL
M4P is an approach to developing market systems so that they function more effectively, sustainably and beneficially for poor people, building their capacities and offering them the opportunity to enhance their lives. Applicable to development and other agencies working in both economic and social fields and who pursue public goals, it is an approach defined by a number of important characteristics:

An approach: M4P is an approach to development that provides guidance not only on understanding of the poor in market systems (analysis), but on how to bring about effective change (action). Analysis should identify the underlying constraints impinging upon market systems and concentrate on addressing these.

Market system focus: its focus is on developing market systems, assessed with respect to different market functions and players, public and private, formal and informal. This systemic character of M4P defines many of its most important features. Its view of a market system emphasizes their multi-function, multiplayer nature – in particular the three main sets of functions that make up the market system:
 the core function between provider and consumer (or the series of players in the flow of value-added in a value chain),
 the formal and informal rules impinging shaping behavior and
 The information, services and other functions supporting exchange.
This systemic view of markets is not only relevant to commercial markets (e.g. industry or agriculture), but also to ‘markets’ that are seen traditionally as public/government domain – such as healthcare, education, water and sanitation, infrastructure, climate change etc.

Large-scale change: by addressing underlying causes (rather than symptoms) of weak performance, M4P aims to unleash large-scale change. Interventions may be small in themselves, but should continually strive to leverage the actions of key market players to bring about extensive change.

Sustainability is a prime concern of M4P. This means considering not just the existing alignment of key market functions and players but how they can work more effectively in the future, based on the incentives and capacities of players to play different roles. For agencies this means in particular looking at how core functions in market systems and continuous improvement of the regulatory and policy environment can be sustained in the long-run without external support.

Facilitating role: M4P requires that (development) agencies play a facilitating role. As external players they seek to catalyze others in the market system (while not becoming part of it themselves). M4P emphasizes explicitly that the role of intervention is temporary and catalytic. Agencies should avoid performing market roles directly and try to facilitate market players to perform more effectively. Interventions therefore need to be sensitive to local market conditions and seek to stimulate deeper and larger change by ‘crowding in’ other players to improve the functioning of the market system. Successful facilitation, although not a fixed model, requires organizations that have credibility, independence and relevant knowledge and skill.

The expression of interest document should be emailed to or delivered to GOAL Kenya office P.O BOX 66242-00800 Nairobi. Kilimani- Nyangumi Rd, off Lenana Rd.

Please quote “Faecal Sludge Management Market Survey and analysis” in the subject line of the email or on the application envelope

Before applying, please make sure that you have read the requirements for the position and that you qualify.
Applications from non-qualifying applicants will most likely be discarded by the recruiting manager.
Or send your application directly to
  • Organization: GOAL
  • Location: Nairobi
  • Grade: Mid level
  • Occupational Groups:
    • Environment
    • Management, Administration and Finance
  • Closing Date: 2016-08-15

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