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Consultancy to review and update state budget analysis of key social sectors with equity and child lens, P4/NOD, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Dar es Salaam


If you are a committed, creative professional and are passionate about making a lasting difference for children, the world's leading children's rights organization would like to hear from you.

If you are a committed, creative professional and are passionate about making a lasting difference for children, the world's leading children's rights organization would like to hear from you.

For 70 years, UNICEF has been working on the ground in 190 countries and territories to promote children's survival, protection and development. The world's largest provider of vaccines for developing countries, UNICEF supports child health and nutrition, good water and sanitation, quality basic education for all boys and girls, and the protection of children from violence, exploitation, and AIDS. UNICEF is funded entirely by the voluntary contributions of individuals, businesses, foundations and governments.

. Context and Justification

 Translating policy intentions into programmes and services that deliver results for children requires resources – human, technical as well as financial. Removing the barriers that prevent children from accessing core quality services depends on the availability of resources, whether raised through domestic revenues, borrowing or development partners' contributions.

Over the years, Tanzania has made efforts to maintain high levels of government spending in key social sectors. Yet expenditures are insufficient and the distribution of public spending tends to be skewed towards better served regions and districts in the country, thereby accentuating existing regional disparities. To complicate matters, critical dimensions of child well-being such as nutrition, early child development and protection against abuse, HIV prevention, water and sanitation, and social protection have not received the attention they deserve in the government budget preparation process.

Of particular concern is the prospect of a stagnant or declining social-sector budget in the face of Tanzania's limited revenue base and its need to increase investment in infrastructure to spur economic growth, which is putting great pressure on its budget. Given the country's riches in the mining sector (gold, oil and gas exploration), as well as its growing economy that is about to reach middle-income status, it is imperative to help the government ensure that Tanzania's wealth contributes to the enhancement of human capital, as a precondition for sustained and shared growth.

The State Budget is a critical tool for the realization of children's rights and to address poverty and disparities in the country (around 27% of children live in households which are monetarily poor, and as many as 74% of children experience non-monetary poverty). In response, UNICEF Tanzania, as part of its work on Public Finance for Children (PF4C), has engaged in budget analysis and advocacy for adequate and equitable resource allocation for social sectors crucial for children. For instance, guidelines based on the 2011 Child Protection Public Expenditure Identification Survey are being implemented to provide guidance to LGAs on how to come in line with approved laws and policies by funding specific activities for child protection. UNICEF also supports comprehensive sector public expenditure reviews (PERs), such as the PER for nutrition completed in 2014 to support the implementation of the government's commitment to increase the resources for critical interventions targeting malnourished mothers and their children.

In the past, UNICEF also contributed to the Rapid Budget Analysis (RBA), which is supposed to be an annual exercise led by the World Bank in collaboration with the Government of Tanzania (GoT). The objective of the RBA is to review actual and budgeted expenditure patterns to inform strategic resource allocation and thereby make recommendations to accelerate economic growth and poverty reduction. The last RBA covers: Agriculture, Transport, Water, Education, Health (incl. HIV/AIDS), Energy, as well as allocations to the Local Govenment Authorities (LGAs). The analysis intends to inform sector reviews, input into the budget preparation through the Planning and Budget Guidelines, inform the MTEF, and ensure a better link between the budget and key GoT priorities.  Due to data availability, the excercise was not carried out for FY 2015/16. The World Bank is currently finalizing the 2016/17 RBA, but without the usual involvement of development partners, including UNICEF, to carry out additional and more detailed analysis in key social sectors.

The RBA exercise mostly involves the central Government and key development partners, and there have been missed opportunities in terms of sharing the wealth of critical information and analysis that is being produced with the broader development community, civil society, local government, as well as the general public. Also, important social sectors, as well as Zanzibar, are not covered. In this context, UNICEF in collaboration with the Government in 2015/16 began producing concise and reader-friendly Budget Briefs for key social sectors. The first round of briefs, covering health, education, nutrition, water and sanitation, and Zanzibar were published in November 2016.

In this update of the budget briefs, UNICEF aims to build the analysis on the current RBA, ensuring comparability of data and methodological approach, in addition to filling some critical gaps in this and other existing analysis. The current round will expand thematically to include social protection and child protection. It will also place more emphasis on sub-national inequities, looking in depth at one social sector (as a "pilot") for which sufficiently rubust sub-national financial data are available. An increasing focus on LGA spending is relevant as it will highlight public financial management (PFM) challenges that are key to child-related sectors. This is also in line with an increased focus on LGAs in the PFM Reform Programme phase V.


  1. Purpose and key objectives


The hired consultants will develop an updated set of equity focused Budget Briefs for 2016/17, short and reader-friendly analyses of the State Budget 20166/17, expenditure outturn for 2015/16, and trends over time (previous five years), building on the RBA analysis and the previous set of budget briefs. The updated briefs intend to inform advocacy aimed at expanding the debate around social sector budget and thereby influencing a more pro-poor, transparent, participatory and equitable public spending across regions and districts. They will cover key social areas such as Education, Health, Nutrition, Water & Sanitation, Social Protection and Child Protection, in addition to a generic brief on the overall revenue and budget/expenditure trends.


The briefs will be shared with Government representatives, members of the Parliament, development partners, academia, civil society among others, with the intent of sparking broad public interest and debate around the State Budget and how resources are distributed among social sectors. The proposed briefs on key social sectors that impact children's and women's well-being in both Mainland and Zanzibar have the following two key goals:


  • To inform the Government at both national and sub-national level, Parliament, broad development community, civil society and general public, serving as a tool for increased understanding and advocacy on budget allocation and expenditure for social sectors - In synergy with the RBA exercise, the analysis will include a definition of the sector; provide an overview of the sector budget and sources of funding; assess sector budget allocation (versus experditure outturn) over time (including percentage of GDP and comparison across regions/districts); assess consistency between sector budget allocations and sector priority objectives (as defined by FYDP, MKUZA III, sector SPs, BRN and other relevant sector documents); and provide an analysis of the sector decentralised budget from an equity perspective.


  • To inform UNICEF advocacy and programmatic efforts via a strengthened evidence base on allocation and expenditure trends in specific social sectors - The objective of this analysis is to inform UNICEF on the spending for sectors that most directly impact the lives of children, highlighting areas that need to be pushed for and strengthened. The analysis should focus on: the weight of the social sectors in the State budget, percentage of the GDP, trends in the allocation to, and expenditure of, the sectors (looking at the last five years), sources of funds (internal versus external), an analysis of per capita allocation by region/district, and allocation versus poverty levels and key child outcomes (equity analysis).


  1. Methodology and Approach


The budget briefs are a result of detailed analyses of budget and expenditure data from the MoFP (IFMS data) as well as an in-depth desk review analysis that includes reading and mining key Public Finance Management (PFM) documents, statistical and sector strategies documents, including: budget books; budget laws; state budget reports; citizens budget; Medium Terms Expenditure Frameworks (MTEF); General State Accounts; Government long- and medium-term development plans; sector strategic plans; relevant national surveys, and other useful documents. Each brief (for both Mainland and Zanzibar) will cover one sector, providing clear and concise analysis, and identifying key highlights. As previously indicated, in-depth sub-national analysis will be conducted for one social sector. There will also be a generic brief looking at the overall budget/expenditure and its composition.


It is planned that an international consultant (individual) will be working closely with a national consultant to ensure ownership and capacity building in order for the exercise to become entirely led by a national institution/organization in the short term. Collaboration with local institutions/organisations will also be sought by UNICEF to develop and implement a solid communication and dissemination plan to ensure that the target groups are reached and engaged effectively. Further, both international and local consultant will be working closely with one or two designated MoFP officials, in both Mainland and Zanzibar, who will directly contribute to the analysis, help to fill-in data gaps, and support dissemination.



  1. Activities and Tasks


The international consultant will work closely with the national consultant to:

  • Review all PFM instruments in Tanzania (both Mainland and Zanzibar) and key strategies and plans, including sector-specific strategies.
  • Build on the RBA and previous round of budget briefs to conduct further analysis of the State Budget and Expenditure Outturn (for current and previous five FYs) to ensure key social sectors are analyzed (as per above) in both Mainland and Zanzibar. Specifically:
  1. Review the budget brief template with a veiw to strengthening the presentation of the analysis. Propose related changes, including based on any input received from government or other development partners;
  2. Provide a list of source data;
  3. Review the methodology used to develop the briefs and propose changes;
  4. Fill in the revised template with updated data for 2015/16 (actual) and 2016/17 (budgeted);
  5. Present results in word version with illustrative figures (graphs, tables, maps) – a proper layout will be done by UNICEF later on, as well as related excel-based analysis and data sets.
  • Support the development of a communication and dissemination plan for the Budget Briefs.


In addition to the above, the international consultant will be required to:

  • Strenghten capacity of the national consultant and key national partners/stakeholders involved in view of ensuring a progressive 'nationalisation' of the exercise.


In addition to the above, the national consultant will be required to:

  • Facilitate access to data (incl. retrieving, compiling and cleaning) and other relevant information & documents to complete the assignment.
  • Ensure proper organisation of technical and consultation meetings, as needed.
  • Review the translated documents into Kiswahili to ensure accuracy and consistency with the English version.


  1. Deliverables and Management


The outputs of this Consultancy will be a series of Budget Briefs for Education, Health, Nutrition, Water & Sanitation, Social Protection and Child Protection, for both Mainland and Zanzibar, with key messages and complete dataset used.


Products will be delivered in English and will be later translated into Swahili by UNICEF. All deliverables should be accompanied by the excel file with all used datasets (including raw data, graphs, maps etc), and PowerPoint presentations with the most important findings and key messages from each brief, as well as an overall presentation on social spending in Tanzania. A detailed workplan and timeline will be requested at the beginning of the assignment.


All products should follow direct supervision and guidance from Social Policy, Research, Evaluation and Monitoring section of UNICEF Tanzania. The consultants are expected to operate in close synergy with the designated MoF officials, and a working group inclusive of key partners (UNICEF, MoF, WB and relevant NGOs), which will be established at the beginning of the exercise.


The level of payment will be determined by the profile of the candidates, in accordance with the UNICEF rules and procedures. Payments will be made upon submission and acceptance of the specified deliverables and submission of invoices. Payments will be made through two tranches, with amount and percentage of consultancy fee indicated in the table below. Payment of travel and accommodation allowances will be made in line with the respective UNICEF rules and regulations.  The planned consultancy cost is indicated in the table below. 

Payment modalities are established as follows:

  • 1st payment: 70% upon delivery of draft briefs;
  • 2nd payment: 30% upon delivery of all finalised outputs.

UNICEF reserves the right to withhold all or a portion of payment if performance is unsatisfactory, if work/outputs is incomplete, not delivered or for failure to meet deadlines.

6. Qualifications

 The international consultants should have:

  • A solid knowledge of PFM instruments, and proven experience (at least 8 years) on similar analyses of the State Budget with focus on social sectors;
  • Strong analytical and writing skills, and the ability to present the results in a simple language, making use of interesting visual aid (maps, graphs and other visual tools);
  • Consolidated knowledge and foundation on crosscutting themes such as equity and sectoral decentralization;
  • An advanced University Degree in Economics, Public Policy, Governance or other relevant areas;
  • Full computer literacy, incl. an advanced knowledge of excel;
  • High proficiency in English;
  • Excellent capacity building skills and previous training experience (at least 3 years);
  • Ability to complete the task in a tight schedule and with limited supervision.

The national consultants should have:

  • A solid knowledge of PFM instruments, and proven experience (at least 5 years) on similar analyses of the State Budget with focus on social sectors;
  • Experience conducting budgetary analysis in Tanzania;
  • Strong analytical and writing skills;
  • Foundation on crosscutting themes such as equity and sectoral decentralization;
  • An advanced University Degree in Economics, Public Policy, Governance or other relevant areas;
  • Full computer literacy, incl. an advanced knowledge of excel;
  • High proficiency in both Swahili and English;
  • Ability to complete the task in a tight schedule.

Please indicate your ability, availability and daily/monthly rate (in US$) to undertake the terms of reference above (including travel and daily subsistence allowance, if applicable).  Applications submitted without a daily/monthly rate will not be considered.

UNICEF is committed to diversity and inclusion within its workforce, and encourages qualified female and male candidates from all national, religious and ethnic backgrounds, including persons living with disabilities, to apply to become a part of our organisation.

Before applying, please make sure that you have read the requirements for the position and that you qualify.
Applications from non-qualifying applicants will most likely be discarded by the recruiting manager.
  • Organization: UNICEF - United Nations Children’s Fund
  • Location: Dar es Salaam
  • Grade: P-4, International Professional - Internationally recruited position - Mid level
  • Occupational Groups:
    • Social Affairs
    • Banking and Finance
    • Operations and Administrations
    • Children's rights (health and protection)
    • Social Affairs
    • Banking and Finance
    • Operations and Administrations
    • Children's rights (health and protection)
  • Closing Date: 2017-04-21

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