ReDSS Durable Solutions Framework: Ethiopia case study
The global number of refugees, stateless persons and internally displaced persons continues to rise. Protracted displacement remains a key challenge in the East and Horn of Africa region, with basic rights and essential economic, social and psychological needs of refugees and asylum seekers remaining unfulfilled after years in asylum. Several of the displacement situations in the East and Horn of Africa today have lasted over 20 years in an asylum space that is constantly under pressure with new influxes of persons fleeing from conflict and natural disasters. This is a regional/cross border issue, dynamic, with a strong political dimension, which demands a multi-sectorial response that goes beyond the existing humanitarian agenda. There is an urgent need for comprehensive and contextualized analysis of the nuanced and complex interplay between drivers of displacement (environmental, societal, political and economic) and the more immediate triggers of displacement such as conflict in order to inform effective strategies for realizing durable solutions. A radical shift to protracted displacement is required, one that goes beyond ‘care and maintenance’ to one that preserves safety and dignity in order to improve the lives and self-reliance of displaced populations while addressing the impact on host communities.
Ethiopia is the second largest refugee hosting country in Africa, with 783,401 refugees and asylum seekers as of February 2017. Ethiopia’s commitment to welcome and protect refugees has been longstanding and most recently following the New York Leaders’ Summit held in September 2016, the Government of Ethiopia made nine highly significant pledges relating to further improved rights and service delivery to refugees. These commitments include inter alia, the expansion of the out of camp policy, improved educational and self-reliance opportunities, job creation as well as local integration for those who have lived in the country for 20 years and more. These commitments are being further discussed and operationalized as part of the ongoing consultation on the Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework (CRRF) process, informing systematic and sustainable interventions benefiting both refugees and host communities. Furthermore, in a recently concluded IGAD Summit on durable solutions for Somalia refugees in the region, a Comprehensive Plan of Action adopted by member States (including Ethiopia) reflected the commitments by regional leaders to marshal a comprehensive integrated regional approach to deliver durable solutions for Somali refugees in safety and dignity, whilst maintaining protection and promoting self-reliance in the countries of asylum, with the support of the international community. The Ethiopian Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs (ARRA) in collaboration with UNHCR, donors, line ministries and other partners are now working to materialize these pledges into significant outcomes such as translating the commitments into a legally binding document through a Refugee Regulation to complement the 2004 Refugee Proclamation, learning from other contexts such as Uganda and developing a concrete road map for the implementation of the pledges.
In the face of this positive shift for refugees living in Ethiopia, it is paramount to better understand and analyze the challenges and opportunities that exist to support the implementation of these commitments to promote durable solutions for refugees in Ethiopia.
Building on existing and ongoing researches, studies and evaluations in Ethiopia, a Solutions analysis will help to identify gaps and areas of prioritization for government and development and humanitarian actors. It will generate evidence to enable ReDSS members and other stakeholders to improve solutions oriented programing and policies. This analysis will contribute to the ongoing CRRF discussion, the implementation of IGAD comprehensive plan of action and any other relevant processes at national and regional levels to support the search of durable solutions.
Building on the work started at the end of 2016, ReDSS seeks to commission a consultant to conduct a detailed Solutions study using the ReDSS Solutions framework which will work as an analytical basis for a broad variety of stakeholders to see in detail and in concrete terms to what extent local integration for refugees in Ethiopia has been achieved – at the national level and to identify progress, key opportunities, gaps and challenges.
- Provide Solutions analysis using the ReDSS framework on refugees in Ethiopia (both those residing in refugee camps and in urban contexts) to inform multi-sectorial rights and needs based programing
- Support a common understanding of ‘what is a durable solution’ illustrated in detail via an indicator set that will show the situation/stage of physical, legal and material safety and
- Provide specific recommendations on how/ where the Government of Ethiopia, the UN, humanitarian, development and other key actors can contribute their expertise to monitor an agreed set of indicators of durable solutions and support a positive move along the lines of these indicators
- Provide specific recommendations on how to improve local integration and self-reliance programing and policies (programing gaps and priorities based on the solutions indicators’ rating, key actors, good practices, lessons learnt, funding opportunities…) in refugee camps and in urban context
- Provide specific recommendations on how to improve durable solution coordination
- Identify knowledge gaps and issues where further research is needed to establish a common learning agenda
- Provide feedback on the Solutions framework analytical tool and suggestions on how to improve it
The data gathered will be based on the ReDSS Solutions framework 31 indicators, looking at the physical, material and legal safety of refugees, in comparison to the host communities. The ReDSS Solutions framework is a rapid analytical tool that offers a snapshot in time to assess to what extent durable solutions for displaced populations have been achieved in a particular context. It can also be used as a joint monitoring and evaluation tool to support coordination and identify gaps and needs of displacement affected communities. It provides common overall outcomes and detailed activities based on the result that is developed and adapted to the local context. The objective is to improve and standardize the generation and availability of relevant data and analysis to better and more consistently operationalize joint response plans based on evidence in the search of durable solutions in East Africa.
The ReDSS solutions framework can be used by humanitarian and development practitioners and policy makers alike, to tailor programming and policies according to a common logical framework and analysis around solutions. This requires a collaborative process and active involvement and consultation with representatives from government at both national and subnational level, humanitarian and development actors and displacement affected communities. The process must be viewed as a collective action in the search for durable solutions rather than mandate driven - the common goal being to support local integration efforts for refugees in Ethiopia. The participatory process through engaging with partners and building consensus, is key to ensuring its relevance and appropriateness, including learning from challenges and managing different opinions and perspectives to reach common objectives. The framework focuses not only on technical quality but on consensus building at each stage of the process. By bringing a wide range of actors, it provides a common tool for working together and with governments to inform durable solutions strategies and response, and for building comprehensive baselines against which to monitor progress over time.
The methodology will include:
- A people centered approach so data and evidence will be collected and analyzed together with the displacement affected communities (refugees and host communities)
- A very participatory and consensus building approach using the ReDSS Solution framework
- Desk review of secondary data and assessments to be able to rate Solutions indicators. Data should be, to the extent of possible, disaggregated by age, gender and settlement areas.
- Key Informant Interviews with government officials at national and local levels, development and humanitarian actors, policy makers, donors, private sector, academia etc to collect existing data and information (Minimum 40 interviews/ participants consulted)
- Field visits and Focus Group Discussions with displacement affected populations (both refugees residing in camps and in urban contexts and host communities) to rate qualitative indicators, social cohesion and local level opportunities and constraints.
- Fill in and populate ReDSS indicators matrix and rating justifications
- Validation workshops with key stakeholders to review and agree on the overall indicators’ rating
This analysis is only about collecting secondary data not conducting new assessments.
See below some suggested questions to inform context and solution analysis that will be further developed and refined by the consultant:
- What are the current response actions/strategies and how do they address prospects for local integration of refugees to date?
- How to better understand political context and incentive structures within which national refugee policies are made? This will provide more evidence in support of local integration and the benefit of displaced people economic empowerment for host communities and countries.
- What is the perception and engagement of host communities? What has been done to enhance social cohesion and local integration and how can it be strengthened?
- What are the challenges and opportunities with regard to Durable Solution coordination in Ethiopia? What kinds of coordination structures are or should be in place?
- What funding mechanisms and funding sources are in place or required to encourage planning and programming for integration?
- What is or should be the role of humanitarian and development actors, governments and local authorities in local integration planning and programing?
- What is or should be the role of the displaced host communities, community-based mechanisms and community base organizations (CBO)?
- How to best collectively support and invest in local integration planning and programing at all level, including in urban areas? What can be done differently?
- Inception Report (with power point presentation) outlining the consultant’s understanding of the TOR, methodology, ethical considerations, outline, work-plan and a list individuals and/or types of organizations the consultant will be interviewing for presentation to the study’s core group.
- Validation workshops with key stakeholders
- Draft Solutions framework analysis to inform multi-sectorial rights and needs based plans/ programs (30 pages maximum without annexes) including:
- Table of contents, glossary of key terms, list of acronyms,
- An executive summary (maximum 3 pages), introduction highlighting the objectives of the study, the rationale, methodology used, scope and limitations, theory of change
- Outline of literature review and country context analyses
- 2 Solutions framework info graphic and analysis (camps and urban context)
- An overview of the collective efforts of all involved stakeholders towards durable solutions which can support agencies/organizations in incorporating durable solutions further in their individual programming strategies
- A baseline understanding from which stakeholders may to understand the progress of Durable Solutions over time
- Conclusions, recommendations and way forward
- Annexes including but not limited to list of key interviews, field visits, bibliography, documents reviewed, etc.
- A short Power Point presentation highlighting the key questions, methodology, key findings and recommendations (15 slides maximum)
- A final revised report based on inputs received from key stakeholders and technical group composed of ReDSS secretariat and technical staff.
DRC will provide the following to the lead consultant:
- Organize the consultants’ travel to and from agreed upon locations;
- Provide relevant background information, and contact numbers for relevant people;
- Provide transportation of the consultant as mutually agreed between DRC and the consultant;
- Provide for accommodation forthe consultant in the field;
The consultant will receive full reimbursement for monies spent on meals and communication while in the field, upon satisfactory completion of the assignment and submission of original receipts
The terms and conditions of service will follow DRC terms of consultancies. Payment will be done according to the finance procedures of DRC/DDG.
6. REPORTING ARRANGEMENTS
The consultant will report to ReDSS Coordinator and DRC Ethiopia Country director. The work of the consultant will be guided by a technical group composed of ReDSS member’s technical staff
7.DURATION OF ASSIGNMENT
The study will be conducted in a period of 40 consultancy days.
8.EXPECTED PROFILE OF CONSULTANT
- Advanced University degree in social studies, political science, international relations or relevant field of study
- Minimum 7 years’ proven experience in conducting similar assignments.
- Demonstrable experience related to forced migration and durable solutions with programming experience an added advantage
- Strong knowledge of the region and the socio-economic and political dynamics affecting it; more specifically on displacement trends within the Horn of Africa region
- Strong analytical and writing skills with proven experience in producing high quality research with ability to present complex information in a simple and accessible manner
- Fluency in written and spoken English
9.TERMS & CONDITIONS
The consultant should be willing to conduct field visit within agreed upon locations in Ethiopia. The consultant may have his/her own team to work with who will entirely be under the jurisdiction of the consultant and at no time will DRC be held responsible for them
Commitments: DRC/DDG has a Humanitarian Accountability Framework, outlining its global accountability committments. All staff are required to contribute to the achievement of this framework (http://www.DRC/DDG.dk/HAF.4265.0.html)
- Interested applicants who meet the required profile are invited to submit an expression of interest including:
- A suitability statement and CV of participating consultant(s) with details of qualifications and experience.
- A 5,000-word writing sample from a recent report or paper on a topic related to the assignment.
- Technical proposal that summarizes understanding of the TOR, methodology and tools to be adopted.
- Work-plan clearly indicating the activity schedule.
- Financial proposal providing cost estimates (both administrative and professional fees).
- Contacts of three organizations that have recently contracted the applicant to carry out similar assignment.
All applications should be uploaded on the DRC recruitment portal https://www.drc.ngo/about-drc/vacancies/current-vacancies
Closing date for submission is 2nd May 2017
UNHCR Global Trends Report, June 2016
OCHA Regional Outlook report, February 2017
 A solution is deemed durable when a refugee’s need for international protection and dependence on humanitarian assistance ends. R. Black and K. Koser, ‘The End of the Refugee Cycle?’ Refugee Repatriation and Reconstruction, Berghahn Books, Oxford, 1999.
ReDSS solutions framework
 The term ‘displacement affected communities’ entails all displaced populations and host communities.
 Refer to Ethics of conducting research in conflict settings. Conflict and Health, 2009 http://www.conflictandhealth.com/content/3/1/7
- Organization: DRC - Danish Refugee Council
- Location: Addis Ababa
- Grade: Level not specified
- Closing Date: 2017-05-02