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RFP - Public Expenditure Review on Adolescent Programme – Bihar

India (India)

  • Organization: Save the Children
  • Location: India (India)
  • Grade: Consultant - Contractors Agreement - Consultancy
  • Occupational Groups:
    • Human Resources
    • Operations and Administrations
    • Sexual and reproductive health
    • Project and Programme Management
    • Children's rights (health and protection)
    • Banking and Finance
  • Closing Date: 2020-07-10

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Job id : 145748 Apply by: 10 Jul 2020 Relevant Sectors Administration, HR, Management, Accounting/Finance Monitoring, Evaluation, Policy, Research
 
1.Background
 
Adolescence – the age of opportunity (10-19 years) – is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood when many critical factors influence the foundation for adult life. India has the largest population of adolescents in the world with 253 million (133 million boys and 120 million girls)[1] individuals. In order to realise their potential to the fullest, adolescents must be healthy, educated and equipped with information skills and confidence that would enable and empower them to voice their own issues but also contribute to their communities and the country’s socio-economic growth. However, in most of the poor states in India, the transition of adolescents to adulthood is not smooth due to poverty, poor access to social services (education, health, nutrition, skilling, social protection) and age-old harmful social and gender-based norms. Adolescent Girls are especially disadvantaged due to a patriarchal set up, forcing them to drop out of schools and get married and bear children at an early age. “They are among the most economically vulnerable groups who typically lack access to financial capital and have more limited opportunities to gain the education, knowledge, and skills that can lead to economic advancement,” as per a report by National Commission for Protection of Child Rights, Government of India.
 
In fact, girls and boys in India experience adolescence differently. While boys tend to experience greater freedom, girls tend to face extensive limitations on their ability to move freely and to make decisions affecting their work, education, marriage and social relationships. With the prevalence of gender discrimination, social norms and practices, biased behaviours and mind-sets across most regions of the country, girls become exposed to the possibility of gender-based discrimination, child marriage, teenage pregnancy, child domestic work, poor education and health, sexual abuse and exploitation and violence, lack of ownership of assets and employment opportunities. Some of the available data show profound challenges that they face. 27% of 20-24 years old women are married before the legal age of 18, 8% of girls aged 15-19 are pregnant or have at least one child.[i] 54% of girls and 48% of boys aged 18-19 have not completed Class 10. 70% of rural and 80% of urban women aged 20-24 are outside the labour force[ii] and 21% of young men and 25% of young women (15-24) received vocational training. In the identified states, the situation of adolescents is further alarming.[iii] Socio-economic factors, at times, force them for distress migration to urban localities or child marriage in case of girls, which make vulnerable to trafficking.
The governments[iv] have put in place several policies[2] and social protection schemes and services[3] that focus on the well-being of adolescents. However, these schemes, due to supply[v] and demand gaps[vi], are marred by significant shortcomings in reach and impact. Similarly, the country has flagship programmes on skill building, however, rural adolescent girls have limited or no access to skill building training. Reach and quality are two big factors of these programmes[vii]. Evidence also shows that the drop-out rate from skill building is quite high (almost 32% left skill building before their completion)[viii]. On the basis of Save the Children’s field experience, it has been learnt that this is partially due to rigid design and poor implementation along with low level of awareness and understanding of long term benefits.[ix].
 
"For detailed information, please check the complete version of the ToR attached below."

 


[1]Census 2011
[2]Youth Policy In India 2014, National Policy for Children 2013; National Health Policy 2016 and National Education Policy; besides, the Government of India is committed to come Nation Employment Policy by 2021
[3] Many Social Protection are there for adolescents; Kanayshree Prakalpa in West Bengal, BaghyaShree in Karnataka, Mukyamantri kanya surakhsa Yojana in Bihar, Ladli scheme in MP, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh; Rastriya Kanya Suraksha Karyakaram- Cntral Government Scheme

 


[i] National Family Health Survey 2015
[ii] National Sample Survey 2011
[iii] Table to specify the data from states in the (to be added)
[iv] The Constitution of India gives a federal structure to the Republic of India, specifies the distribution of legislative, administrative and executive powers between the Union or Federal or Central government, and the States of India. Due to its constitutional arrangement, both the Central Government and the State Governments, have the power and jurisdiction to design and develop social protection programmes for its citizens.
[v] Inadequate financing and benefit value of the schemes, management and monitoring inefficiencies in tracking, transparency, accountability & grievance redressal mechanisms and complex conditions and criteria are some of the supply sides issues; along with the fact that these schemes are routed through multiple ministries and departments, which make both service providers and service seekers confuse, leading to misrepresentation and under representation
[vi] Adolescents and their families are not aware of different options of social protection schemes and services for which they are eligible, and even if they are aware, there are huge associated opportunity costs and communication and information gaps, which restrict them from accessing the scheme benefits.
[vii] PIB, Govt. of India, Challenges of Skill Development in India.
[viii] PIB, Govt. of India, Challenges of Skill Development in India.

[ix] Short duration of training, poor quality and understanding market requirement are key reasons for adolescents’ drop out. Most of the training programmes lack preparation/mobilisation for skill courses of community and adolescents, life skills, financial literacy, market base orientation, post-training support 

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