International Consultant to Undertake a Scoping Study of GBV Prevention Initiatives in Nepal
1. BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE
UN Women and UNICEF’s Work on Gender-Based Violence (GBV)
Addressing and preventing GBV is central to UN Women and UNICEF’s efforts to achieve gender equality and advance the rights of women and children. The UN Women Nepal Country Office is in the process of finalizing a Strategy to Prevent and Address Gender-Based Violence in Nepal (2021-2027) to pursue a more cohesive and comprehensive approach to prevent and address gender-based violence (GBV) in Nepal’s post COVID-19 context together with its key partners. The strategy underscores the significance of data and evidence for effective programming, advocacy, and policy formulation to prevent and respond to GBV, and to foster accountability. In line with the milestone CEDAW General Recommendation No. 35, UN Women’s efforts are guided by the need to change social norms and stereotypes that support violence and support the Government to prevent violence and protect women and girls and other excluded groups from violence.
Recognizing that work on GBV in Nepal to date has focused more on response than prevention and that certain knowledge gaps on prevention exist, UN Women is commissioning a series of studies to better understand the GBV landscape in Nepal. It is in this context that UN Women is commissioning the Scoping Study of GBV Prevention in Nepal through this TOR, in collaboration with UNICEF.
Gender-Based Violence (GBV) in Nepal
According to the 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), one in five women in Nepal aged 15-49 have experienced physical violence since the age of 15, and at least one in four (26%) ever- married women have ever experienced spousal physical, sexual, or emotional violence. GBV takes multiple forms – physical, sexual, emotional and economic – and occurs in private, public and workspaces, and throughout the life cycles of women, girls, and LGBTIQ+ individuals. Individual experiences of and vulnerabilities to GBV vary considerably and are further compounded by intersecting forms of discrimination, such as disability, gender identity and sexual orientation, caste, ethnicity, religion, age, and socioeconomic status. In Nepal, Dalit women and girls, or LBTI women, face compounded forms of discrimination or higher risks of being subject to GBV due to their caste, gender or sexual orientation. In Nepal, GBV also manifests itself through context-specific forms such as harmful practices, which include child marriage, dowry, witchcraft accusations and persecution, chhaupadi, deuki, jhuma, and dhan-khaane.
The factors that increase GBV in Nepal stem from long-standing socio-cultural traditions, norms and practices that have evolved over centuries, including patriarchy, the caste system and other forms of economic and political domination of certain communities over others. GBV is not the result of random, individual acts of misconduct, rather, it is deeply rooted in patriarchy, power imbalances and structural inequality, and harmful social and cultural norms that place lower value on women, girls and excluded groups in society.
This victimization of women happens in a context of widespread violence against children and high rates of sexual and gender-based violence affecting (SGBV) children. Analysis of Nepal Police’s Women and Children Directorate for years 2017-2020 reveals that 62% of cases of SGBV reported to the police concern children and teenagers. This high vulnerability of children to SGBV is also reflected in data emerging from OCMC and shelter case management, and shed a concerning light on the ways childhood experience of violence is both a consequence of prevailing social norms as well as for many girls and women, critical in shaping future experiences and vulnerabilities.
While Nepal’s legal and policy framework to address GBV is relatively advanced by comparative standards, a new constitution promulgated in 2015 explicitly prohibited discrimination against women and guaranteed the right of women to be protected from any act(s) of physical, mental, sexual, psychological, or other forms of violence or exploitation on any grounds. This commitment is reiterated in the Act relating to Children (2018) which elevates violence against children including various forms of GBV and harmful practices rooted in gender inequality to the status of State-party offences. Furthermore, many dedicated laws exist to address and prevent various forms of GBV, including domestic violence, chhaupadi, and witchcraft accusations and persecution (WAP). The Government of Nepal has also made strong normative commitments, including the ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and using international platforms to reiterate its commitment to ending all forms of GBV. The Government’s 15th Development Plan and Gender Equality Policy similarly outline an objective to end gender-based discrimination, GBV and exploitation. Furthermore, with regards to broader efforts to prevent and respond to GBV in the COVID-19 context, the UN Framework for Responding to the Socio-Economic Impacts of COVID-19 in Nepal identifies protection from violence and exploitation as one of the interventions areas.
However, the available data on GBV in Nepal clearly demonstrate that much more is needed. In 2017, GBV was found to be “the leading identifiable trigger for violent deaths in Nepal”. In rural Nepal, where gendered norms around dominance, aggression, and sexual rights of husbands over their wives are even more entrenched, over half of young married women report violence from an intimate partner in their lifetime. Given the child marriage rates in Nepal, this points to early exposure to GBV and lifelong experience of violence and abuse. Key gaps remain, and action to prevent GBV has been limited, and when it does occur, it often goes unreported or unpunished. Adding to the challenge is the lack of national collection of comparable data on different forms of GBV, including violence against women such as femicide or suicides of women. The true scale of GBV is likely to be underestimated, with many instances of violence going unreported. In addition, impunity, or the failure to bring perpetrators to justice, remains a significant obstacle to preventing GBV.
COVID-19 and GBV
The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the acute need for strengthened and concerted efforts to address and prevent GBV. Evidence now shows the compounding complexities of the development and humanitarian crisis are having a disproportionate effect on women and girls, as well as those at-risk and vulnerable groups; as pre-existing gender and socio-economic inequalities are further exacerbated during the crisis and in its aftermath. The consequences to women, girls and excluded groups have been dire. The extensive lockdown measures and enforced mobility restrictions, including recent prohibitory orders for the period 29 April to 31 May 2021 in the Kathmandu Valley, have inadvertently placed women, girls and other groups such as LGBTIQ+ persons in isolation and at greater risk of sexual, domestic and intimate partner violence, or hostility from abusive family members. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought to light the critical gaps and challenges that remain in preventing and responding to GBV in Nepal. At the same time, the pandemic has served as a call to action, by renewing commitments, determination and the momentum to end GBV, without which GBV will continue unabated. In this context, the study will help inform relevant discussions on GBV in the COVID-19 context and beyond, including in the Humanitarian Cluster System through the Protection Cluster and GBV Sub-Cluster.
The study has the following objectives:
 UN Women, grounded in the vision of equality enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations, works for the elimination of discrimination against women and girls; the empowerment of women; and the achievement of equality between women and men as partners and beneficiaries of development, human rights, humanitarian action and peace and security.
 UNICEF, the UN’s agency with the mandate to uphold the rights of children, has been working in Nepal for the last five decades. Leveraging its multi-sectoral expertise, UNICEF seeks to address not only the immediate factors influencing child survival, growth and development, but also the root causes of child deprivations with specific attention to gender and social disparities.
 Gender-based violence (GBV) refers to harmful acts directed at an individual or a group of individuals based on their gender. It is rooted in gender inequality, the abuse of power and harmful norms. The term is primarily used to underscore the fact that structural, gender-based power differentials place women and girls at risk for multiple forms of violence. While women and girls suffer disproportionately from GBV, men and boys can also be targeted. The term is also sometimes used to describe targeted violence against LGBTQI+ populations, when referencing violence related to norms of masculinity/femininity and/or gender norms. UN Women (2020).
 Ministry of Health and Population. (2017). Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2016, p 336.
 Harmful practices emanate from a combination of deeply embedded patriarchal norms, customary practices, common beliefs and unequal power relations. In Nepal, these include child marriage, dowry, son preference, polygamy, witchcraft accusations and persecution, chhaupadi (a form of menstrual exile where women and girls sleep in small huts or animal sheds during menstruation and immediately after child birth, jhuma (a Buddhist practice of offering a daughter to a monastery to bring good fortune to the family), deuki (offering a Hindu girl to a temple for ceremonial purposes), and dhan-khaane (receiving money for solemnizing the marriage of a child).
 Puri Misra & Hawkes. (2015). Hidden voices: Prevalence and risk factors for violence against women with disabilities in Nepal Health behavior, health promotion and society. BMC Public Health 15(1).
 “’Impunity’ means the impossibility, de jure or de facto, of bringing the perpetrators of violations to account - whether in criminal, civil, administrative or disciplinary proceedings - since they are not subject to any inquiry that might lead to their being accused, arrested, tried and, if found guilty, sentenced to appropriate penalties, and to making reparations to their victims.”. United Nations, Commission on Human Rights. (2005). Updated set of principles for the protection and promotion of human rights through action to combat impunity.
 IRC/CARE. (2020). Global Rapid Gender Analysis for COVID-19.
 There should be a particular focus on UN Women’s target provinces: Province 2, Bagmati Province and Sudurpaschim Province. The scope at provincial and local levels will be further defined in consultation with UN Women during the inception phase.
Duties and Responsibilities
The International Consultant will lead the design, implementation and coordination of the Scoping Study of GBV Prevention Initiatives in Nepal. To achieve the key objectives listed above, the consultant will undertake the following tasks:
Task 1: Inception Report
After an initial meeting with the hiring team to clarify the scope of the assignment, the consultant will draft an inception report outlining the methodology for the literature review, KIIs and include a suggested list of interviewees and an interview guide. Based on the approach outlined in their proposal, it will also take into account any new information provided through discussion and any additional information provided by UN Women and UNICEF.
Deliverables of the National Consultant under Task 1:
Task 2: Literature Review
Types of violence and GBV prevention interventions may include the following search terms:
Deliverables of the National Consultant under Task 2:
Task 3: Key Informant Interviews (KIIs)
The consultant will undertake a minimum of 40 KIIs with actors working on GBV prevention at the national, provincial and local level on the basis of a mutually agreed interview plan. The interviewees should include relevant Government representatives, I/NGOs, CSOs including women’s rights organizations and networks, UN agencies and donor governments, at national and sub-national level. Where relevant the consultant may also interview global specialists with expertise in GBV prevention in Nepal. These interviewees may provide additional recommendations of people to interview to create a ‘snow-ball effect’. The consultant should provide a tentative list of interviewees plus an interview guide as part of the Inception Report. Interviews should take place in either English or Nepali depending on interviewee preference and languages spoken by the consultant.
The situation with COVID-19 is expected to remain the same in early 2021, therefore it is expected that the majority of KIIs will be held by phone/online and only face-to-face if the consultant is based nearby and it is possible to observe social distancing and other COVID-19 safety precautions.
Deliverables of the International Consultant under Task 3:
Task 4: Draft Report
The overall findings from the literature review and the KIIs should be included in the draft and revised final reports. A suggested structure for the draft and final reports is as follows:
The report structure will be further defined in consultation with UN Women and UNICEF. The consultant may also be requested to include short case studies of successful prevention initiatives.
Deliverables of the International Consultant under Task 4:
Task 5: Final Report
The consultant should revise the draft report based on feedback from the UN Women.
Deliverables of the International Consultant under Task 5:
Task 6: Presentation
After the approval of the final report, the consultant will be invited to a virtual meeting with UN Women and UNICEF and potentially other key stakeholders to present the overall findings of the scoping study and recommendations. The purpose of the meeting will be to engage with a broader group of actors and will allow time for discussion and reflection on how to take the recommendations forward.
Deliverables of the International Consultant under Task 6:
Task 7: Brief
As a supplement to the final report and PowerPoint presentation, the consultant will also be asked to produce a short 3-4 page brief on the methodology, key findings and recommendations from the GBV prevention scoping study to be used as an information sharing and advocacy tool with the Government of Nepal, donors and other agencies.
Deliverables of the International Consultant under Task 7:
4. DURATION OF THE ASSIGNMENT
It is anticipated the assignment will take up to 50 working days over a period of 6 months.
5. TENTATIVE TIMELINE OF KEY DELIVERABLES AND PAYMENT SCHEDULE
Schedule of payments:
Payment for this consultancy will be based on the achievement of each deliverable and certification that each has been satisfactorily completed. Payment will be based on the submission of the SSA report along with the relevant supporting documents for the achievement of deliverables.
UN Women Inputs:
 If the consultant is a non-Nepali speaker, costs for translation of key documents should be factored into the financial proposal.
 If the consultant is a non-Nepali speaker, costs for translation of key interviews should be factored into the financial proposal.
Core Values and Guiding Principles
Required Skills and Experience
7. REQUIRED SKILLS AND EXPERIENCE
Advanced university degree (master’s degree or Ph.D) Political Science, Sociology, International Relations, Law or relevant field.
Language: Fluency in oral and written English is required. Fluency in oral and written Nepali will be an asset. In cases where the consultant is a non-Nepali speaker, costs for translation of key documents and interviews should also be factored into the financial proposal.
8. HOW TO APPLY
Interested consultants must submit the following documents/information in a single PDF file to demonstrate their qualifications through the UNDP jobs site: jobs.undp.org.
The financial proposal must be submitted in a separate page using the following template.
Kindly note that the system will only allow one attachment, please combine all your documents into one single PDF document. Applications without the completed UN Women P-11 form and written sample will be treated as incomplete and will not be considered for further assessment.
9. EVALUATION AND SELECTION CRITERIA
The total number of points awarded during the evaluation is 100, with the technical qualification evaluation including interview accounting for 70 points and the financial proposal accounting for 30 points. Only the candidates who have attained a minimum of 70% of total points will be considered as technically qualified candidates.
A two-stage procedure is utilized in evaluating the proposals, with evaluation of the technical proposal being completed prior to any price proposal being compared. Only the price proposal of the candidates who passed the minimum technical score of 70% of the obtainable score of 70 points in the technical qualification evaluation will be evaluated.
The total number of points allocated for the technical qualification component is 70. The technical qualification of the individual is evaluated based on following technical qualification evaluation criteria:
The financial proposal of candidates who meet the technical assessment threshold will be evaluated. The total number of points allocated for the financial proposal is 30. In this methodology, the maximum number of points assigned to the financial proposal is allocated to the lowest price proposal. All other price proposals receive points in inverse proportion.
A formula is as follows:
p = y (µ/z)
p = points for the financial proposal being evaluated
y = maximum number of points for the financial proposal
µ = price of the lowest-priced proposal
z = price of the proposal being evaluated
In July 2010, the United Nations General Assembly created UN Women, the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women. The creation of UN Women came about as part of the UN reform agenda, bringing together resources and mandates for greater impact. It merges and builds on the important work of four previously distinct parts of the UN system (DAW, OSAGI, INSTRAW and UNIFEM), which focused exclusively on gender equality and women’s empowerment.
UN Women is committed to achieving workforce diversity in terms of gender, nationality and culture. Individuals especially women are highly encouraged to apply.