Final Evaluation of the Tropical Cyclome IDAÏ and KENNETH Operation
1.1. Purpose: The main purpose of the final evaluation is to assess the joint Red Cross Red Crescent Movement partners response to the Cyclone Idaï and Kenneth affected population from March 2019 in Mozambique based on the evaluation criteria described in section 4 below. The evaluation will assess the response of the IFRC in this operation, identify successes, give recommendations on how to address future challenges and highlight processes for effective response for future public
1.2. Type of evaluation: Natural disasters of a similar magnitude.
1.3. Audience: The Mozambican Red Cross Society (Cruz Vermelha de Mozambique - CVM), IFRC, ICRC, other Partner National Societies (PNSs), the Government of Mozambique, donors, and other humanitarian responders in the country
1.4. Commissioners: This evaluation is being commissioned by the Africa Regional Director in compliance with the IFRC Framework for evaluation
1.5. Reports to: Head of country delegation in Mozambique, and the Regional Planning, Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting (PMER) Manager in Nairobi
1.6. Duration of the evaluation: 30 days
1.7. Timeframe: Mid-June to Mid-July 2021
1.8. Methodology summary : Participatory mixed methods approach is recommended.
1.9. Location : Maputo, Sofala, Manica and Tete provinces of Mozambique.
2.1. Historical background
The Cyclone Idaï made landfall on the evening of 15 March 2019 in Beira, the port city of Sofala Province in Central Mozambique. The cyclone hit Beira and surrounding areas resulting in loss of communication, important damage and unprecedented destruction of shelters and settlements, health and WASH facilities and thousands of hectares of crops as well as loss of life and injury. The extent of the devastation was widespread and reports indicate that 1.85million people have been affected with Sofala, manica, Zambezia and Tete being the mostly affected provinces in Mozambique.
Following this humanitarian crisis, the Mozambican government declared a national emergency the on 19 March 2019 and has formally requested an international assistance. As information becomes available there is an evident need to scale up the response and reach more individuals affected by the cyclone. The cyclone’s path resulted in massive destruction in Chinde district located in Zambézia province and Manica and Inhambane provinces. As of 23 March, at least 417 people had died and more than 1,400 had been injured according to official government reports. Initial reports also indicated more than 33,600 houses have been totally destroyed with many more damaged. More than 89,100 people were put in temporary shelters in 122 sites across Sofala (90 sites), Manica (18 sites), Zambezia (10 sites) and Tete (4 sites). Cyclone Idai also caused damage and led to loss of life and severe injuries in Zimbabwe and Malawi whereby the tail of cyclone left widespread destruction. In the above-mentioned neighbouring countries, separate response mechanisms have been developed and implemented accordingly.
The Red Cross assessment team comprised of CVM staff and IFRC surge team, assessment coordinator, logistics, communication and WASH were deployed to Beira in the early hours of the disaster to carry initial assessments. An aerial survey was conducted in the most affected areas of Beira on 17 March. The survey indicated that over 90% of the areas have been completely destroyed. A comprehensive multi-sectoral assessment was carried out afterwards to inform strategies to focus on longer-term needs in livelihoods and disaster risk reduction capacity. According to the finding of this assessment completed in the third week of May 2019, about 1.5 million people were affected by Cyclone IDAI, which represents approximately 11.2% of the total population in the four affected provinces, showing multiple deprivations the population affected was facing in the four provinces affected by Cyclone Idai. The loss of housing has had a multidimensional poverty impact since 4 out of 17 (25%) of the indicators relate to housing. Of equal concern was the simultaneous loss of all household goods and essential assets, which in terms of monetary value are proportionally higher than building costs. For families that have lost everything at once, finding the necessary financial and material resources to simultaneously rebuild housing, replace domestic items, and rebuild livelihoods, will be extremely challenging and will take time.
Accessibility and delivery of relief items was challenging in the early hours of the disaster, IFRC and CVM have been working closely with the French Red Cross and Indian Ocean Regional Intervention Platform (PIROI) to support bringing in relief supplies from their base in La Reunion island. Prior to the cyclone hitting, household items (HH items) were pre-positioned and were distributed to affected communities by CVM. The Red Cross assessments indicate immediate needs comprise Shelter including household items distributions, WASH and Health. Since displaced people were living in spontaneous settings and temporary evacuation centres, the likelihood of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) was predicted high. Initial assessments suggested that women, children, elderly, person with disability and other disadvantaged group of people require special attention and care to access appropriate assistance. The emergency team established three base locations in Maputo, Chimioi and Beira for an efficient early response. These bases were utilized as as the hubs for operational needs as IFRC prepares to set up a fully operational office in Beira.
Since the beginning of the Operation in March 2019, the Idai cyclone operation has been revised and extended to cater for the changing operational needs amid the Covid19 restrictive measures while also responding to new emergencies that emerged later namely: the Cyclone Kenneth2, floods in Beira and the Cyclone Eloise3. The revision of the Appeal has been equally an opportunity to incorporate transition
and preparedness activities alongside the response. The current end date for the operation is 19 July 2021 with a budget of CHF 32 million.
As far as funding is concerned, Cyclone Idai operation was funded through several channels, starting from Movement partners already present in the country when the disaster stroke namely Spanish RC, Belgium RC (Flanders), German RC, Italian RC, Portuguese RC, ICRC, IFRC. A number of other partner National Societies (PNSs) and their respective governments, foundations, private donors and several other institutional donors equally participated to the response. These include the American Red Cross, Australian Red Cross, Austrian Red Cross, British Red Cross, Bulgarian Red Cross, Cabo Verde Red Cross, Canadian Red cross, Croatian Red Cross, Czech Republic Red Cross, French Red Cross, Hong Kong RC, Icelandic Red Cross, Irish Red Cross, Japanese Red Cross, Korean Red Cross, Kuwait Red Crescent, Liechtenstein Red Cross, Luxemburg Red Cross, Netherlands Red Cross, Norwegian Red Cross, Sao Tomé Red Cross, Seychelles RC, Singapore RC, Swedish Red Cross Swiss Red Cross and Turkish Red Crescent, Spanish AECID, Airbus Foundation, Booking Care, Coca Cola, Credit Suisse Foundation, Czech Republic, DFID, ECHO, Erickson-Malinoski Giving Fund (TIAA) on behalf of Bernadette Malinoski, Estonia MoF, Facebook, IFRC at the UN Inc., Irish Aid, Italian Government Bilateral Fund, Lichtenstein Government, Lionel and Ann Rosenbaltt, Luxemburg Government, MundiPharma, New Zealand Government, OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID), Patrick J McGovern Foundation, Pernod Ricard, Robert L. Robertson, Sanford Waxer, Shell, Transfigura, USAID/OFDA, White & Case LLP, WHO, World Remit. Private donors in Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, United States, Netherlands. The support during the emergency phase varied from financial support to in-kind, including through the mobilization of Emergency Response Units and surge personnel or a combination of both in some instances.
2.2. Implementation framework
The implementation of the Idai cyclone response was designed and done based on an integrated approach through the following thematic areas:**
a) Food Security, Livelihood (FSL) and basic needs: Thousands of families in the three most affected provinces of Sofala, Manica and Tete have been displaced and most houses have suffered significant damages. The IFRC along with other partners has been focusing on providing shelter support to affected families. Trained volunteers were working to providing temporary shelters, especially for families whose houses had been completely destroyed. The assistance also focussed on providing support to improve the shelters of those whose houses were partially destroyed, with specific attention to issues related to protection, gender and disability inclusion since most families were gathered temporarily in transit centres. Shelter kits were provided in the form of ‘’emergency shelter kits’’ and tarpaulins. In addition to the emergency shelter needs, affected families whose houses were completely destroyed received household items (HHIs) namely blankets, sleeping mats and kitchen sets to ensure that basic needs are met, and people can be protected from extreme weather condition. For repairing/rehabilitation of houses, conditional electronic cash grants via a local partnership with Vodacom has been considered to support self-recovery. Training in safer construction, including hands-on training on building back better and community-based hazard awareness, preparedness and DRR has been implemented throughout the response.
b) Health & Psychosocial Support (PSS): Floods and cyclonic events can lead to death and injuries as well as increased health needs in affected communities. Infectious diseases are also likely to increase in the aftermath of the disaster. Waterborne diseases are the earliest hazard due to the contamination of water supply and disruption of usual water treatment. Outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis, hepatitis, cholera and other diseases could arise as a result. Malaria is endemic in Mozambique with a peak in the rainy season from December to April. After Idai, extensive flooding resulted in stagnant water that could result in perfect breeding sites for mosquitoes. Initial assessments has shown extensive flooding and destruction including damage to health facilities and loss of medical stocks and supplies. The displacement and damage have also resulted in a loss of access to proper sanitation and hygiene materials for females who were supported through the provision of dignity kits. After comprehensive assessments, volunteers were trained on various responses themes including cholera prevention, Oral rehydration techniques, malaria prevention awareness, vaccination. During the operation, selected volunteers were trained on how to provide Psychosocial support, paying special attention to at-risk groups, such as the elderly and people with disabilities and children.**
b) Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH): The cyclone has damaged most water points, sanitation and hygiene facilities in affected areas. The population has lost access to WASH services and facilities, families are displaced and need to be supported to prevent water-borne disease outbreaks. To cope with this situation, the Red Cross provided soaps for hand washing and other use, the provision of buckets and jerry cans for safe storage of water. The provision of water purification has been also enabled through the mobilization of the M15 Emergency Response Unit (ERU) which provided treatment and distribution of safe water up to 225,000 litres a day for a population of 15,000 people, with a storage capacity of a maximum of 200,000 litres a day. Specialized units to provide basic sanitation and hygiene promotion for up to 5,7000 were equally deployed in Mozambique. Basic sanitation facilities (latrines, vector control through provision of mosquito nets and solid waste disposal) for up to 20,000 beneficiaries were done through hygiene promotion campaigns. Many women and girls have lost access to facilities and supplies for menstrual hygiene and menstrual hygiene kits were provided to ensure the dignity of women and girls affected by the cyclone. **
c) Protection, Gender and Inclusion (PGI): Beneficiaries across the affected areas have been supported with PGI services. These include Sexual and Gender Based Violence (SGBV) prevention and Child Protection in the communities. Selected frontline volunteers were trained in PSS services to ensure those who lost their lovely ones and those who lost valuable assets are provided with Psychosocial First Aid. Early marriage prevention for teenage girls has been tackled in target communities and safe spaces to allow women and girls victims of sexual violence or other home-based type of harassment had been set up and used across the project sites. **
d) Shelter: At the eve of the cyclone, thousands were displaced, and most homes have experienced significant damages. Initial assessments revealed that 7,500 families needed immediate shelter assistance. Red cross emergency team and volunteers provided temporary shelters, focusing first to families whose houses have been completely destroyed. They also provided support to families whose houses had been partially destroyed, with specific attention to gender and disability inclusion. Shelter kits were distributed in the form of emergency shelter kits and tarpaulins. Additional household items including blankets, sleeping mats and kitchen sets to ensure that at least their basic needs are met, and people can be protected from extreme weather conditions. During the post-emergency period, additional shelters were fully built by the IFRC and CVM through the self-recovery and owner-driven approach, to allow affected families to return in their communities. Training in safer construction, including hands-on training on building back better and community-based hazard awareness, preparedness and DRR was implemented throughout the response.**
All activities are being supported by CVM volunteers in affected areas. The NS has 11 Branches and in 133 districts committees (84% of all districts). The National Society’s key activities include resettlement of returning refugees; Disaster Response (leading in shelter cluster in the country); Disaster Risk Reduction; Water & Sanitation; Health emergencies. Its actions are implemented by approximately 170 staff, 5,500 volunteers and more than 70,000 members.
3. Evaluation Purpose & Scope
The overall purpose of this evaluation is to measure the achievements of the Idai Cyclone operation against the initial targets while also assessing the results of the operation in strengthening the capacity the NS, i-e the Mozambican Red Cross in responding to future humanitarian emergencies in the country. It is expected that the final evaluation specifically investigates the following:
- Carry out an overall and independent assessment about the performance of the Idai Cyclone operation by measuring the achievements against planned objectives per sector. This will have to refer to different revisions of the Appeal.
- Document lessons learned and recommendations for implementation in future similar emergencies.
- Identify opportunities that could serve future operations and assess challenges that hampered the operation.
- Suggest relevant solutions that may help to improve performance of future similar operations.
The geographic scope of the Idai Cyclone Operation is mainly in 4 provinces of the central Mozambique.
4. Evaluation criteria and questions
Evaluation criteria and questions are key measures used to determine the factors for success in our work. They inform what we evaluate to provide a comprehensive evaluation of our work in compliance with the Fundamental Principles and Code of Conduct of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO) in Disaster Relief as well as other international standards and guidelines adopted by IFRC as described below:
Relevance and appropriateness: This refers to the extent to which the Idai Appeal responded to the needs of the Cyclone affected communities, the local and national government needs during the emergency, policies and priorities dictated by the emergency.
- To what extent did the design of the operation and response activities address the need and priorities of communities? and?
- To what extent was the design of the operation and activities remain responsive amid the changing context, needs and priority of beneficiaries?
- To what extent were the activities, outputs and outcomes of the operation consistent with the overall goal of the response? Are they consistent with the intended outcomes and impact?
Effectiveness: The evaluation team will look at the extent to which the Idai operation has achieved its objectives and results in the affected communities
- To what extent were the objectives and outcomes achieved?
- What direct and immediate benefits have the communities, institutions and any other beneficiaries obtained from the intervention outputs?
- What factors contributed to the achievement or non-achievement of the objectives?
Efficiency: The evaluation team will examine how well the resources available were utilized in the operation and can be justified by its results, taking alternatives into account. Operational efficiency will be a key aspect evaluated in this section as well as looking at efficiency versus impact.
- Were the inputs sufficient for obtaining the outputs planned (and hence achieve the outcomes)?
- How well were the inputs (funds, people, materials and time) used to produce results?
- Have the management systems and execution processes functioned well? What else could be done to enhance efficiency?
- Was the program implemented in the most efficient way compared to alternatives? Could a different approach produce better results?
Impact: The totality of the effects of Idai cyclone operation, positive and negative, intended and unintended will be assessed. The evaluation team should be able to illustrate the difference that the operation made to the affected communities and to Mozambique as a country.
- What changes (social, economic, personal, technological, environmental, etc.) have been caused to the affected communities and the CVM by the operation? Were the changes positive or negative, planned or unplanned?
- How significant were the changes caused by the operation to the beneficiary and CVM?
- To what extent were the above changes inclusive to the different groups of beneficiaries?
· To the extent possible, highlight the impact of the operation on RC volunteers, affected communities and CVM in terms of governance, volunteers management, response and preparedness capacity
Sustainability: This will involve an assessment of whether there will be continuation of benefits obtained from the Idai response operation that will continue within the affected communities and CVM at HQ level and Branch level. The extent to which benefits will last or continue will be done on the financial, social and institutional aspects.**
- What evidence exists that the changes identified are either sustainable or tending toward sustainability?
- Will the affected communities have the capacity to maintain or extend the benefits obtained so far once the IFRC support has ended? How? What else should have been done to ensure strong sustainability beyond the operation timeframe?
- What factors affect sustainability: political priorities? Economic, institutional, technological, socio-cultural or environmental factors?
- What are the practical recommendations for adjusting the design of future activities to ensure sustainability?
Coverage: The evaluation will examine the extent to which the cyclone response operation was able to reach major population groups since the start of the operation.
- To what extent did the operation reach/cover the population affected by the cyclone? To what extent were the activities inclusive to the different groups of beneficiaries e.g., vulnerable groups, person with disabilities, children etc.?
- What were the key groups reached? How were they reached? Which groups were not reached and how could this have been done?
- What challenges were faced in terms of access? What can be done to minimize these challenges?
5. Evaluation Methodology
The evaluation methodology will adhere to the IFRC Framework for Evaluations. The Evaluator will give a detailed methodology in the inception report. The consultant(s) shall include the following list, but not limited to:
Literature review of existing documents and reports related to the Idai cyclone operation:
Emergency Appeal and Emergency Appeal revisions
Operation updates (reports)
Logframe, M&E plan, Indicator Tracking Table (ITT)
The 4Ws mattrix
Lessons learnt review report
Other available operation documents such as SitReps
Primary data collection
Key informant interviews
Focus Group Discussions
Secondary data analysis
Due to the wide coverage of the operation as described under the ‘’Scope section’, All of the 3 provinces involved in the operation will be visited by the evaluation team. However, in consultation with the IFRC, sample locations to be visited will be agreed upon and this includes Maputo where the senior staff of CVM, PNSs and the IFRC country director are based.
It is important to note that while field work remain of a paramount importance, they will highly depend on the security situation in the field and COVID-19 travel restrictions in place at the time of the evaluation. We encourage the consultant to take these into account while submitting their proposal.
The evaluation team will build on existing information and analysis available and adhere to the agreed timelines. They will also be required to demonstrate impartiality and lack of bias to deliver objective evaluation results.
Expected results and deliverables from this evaluation are:
An inception report outlining the methodology, data collection plan and detailed workplan
- Debriefings – workshop/webinar on preliminary findings of the evaluation
- Interim report
- Final report
- Cleaned data (for data collected during this evaluation)
- Photographs/videos captured during field visits
Proposed final report outline will be agreed between the evaluator and the Evaluation management team.
Evaluation Quality & Ethical Standards
Please refer to the IFRC Evaluation framework for the Evaluation Standards. It is also expected that the evaluation complies with the seven Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross and Red Crescent: 1) humanity, 2) impartiality, 3) neutrality, 4) independence, 5) voluntary service, 6) unity, and 7) universality. Further information can be obtained about these principles at:
Interested candidates should submit their application not later than (insert date) to: https://www.ifrc.org/en/who-we-are/working-with-us/current-vacancies/job-description/?id=83255 Application should include the following material:
Curriculum Vitae (CV) for all members of the team applying for consideration.
Cover letter clearly summarizing your experience as it pertains to this assignment and three professional references.
A brief description of your firm or company (for applicants other than individual consultants).
Technical proposal not exceeding ten pages expressing an understanding and interpretation of the TOR, the proposed methodology, and a time and activity schedule.
Financial proposal detailing estimated costs for services rendered (daily consultancy fees), accommodation and living costs, transport costs, stationery costs, and any other related supplies or services required for the evaluation.
All the above documents must be in English with the exception of the sample reports
Application material are non-returnable, and we thank you in advance for understanding that only short-listed candidates will be contacted for the next step in the application process.
11. Scoring of the Proposals
The proposal will be scored out of 100% and this will be assessed based on the following criteria:
Overall understanding of the program - 25%
Understanding of the scope of the evaluation - 10%
Quality of the evaluation framework - 10%
Methodology and sampling approach - 15%
Comprehensive workplan and outline of consultant’s responsibilities - 10%
Qualifications of the consultants involved - 20%
Quality of sample reports submitted - 10%